Chapter 1  To screen or not to screen – first do no harm

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2.    Prescan.

3.    Lifescan.

4.    Welch, G. Should I Be Tested for Cancer? Maybe not and here’s why. University of California Press. 2004

5.    McCartney M. Executive health checks raise questions. FT Magazine, December 2008.

6.    Vernooij MW, Arfan Ikram M. Incidental Findings on Brain MRI in the General Population. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1821-1828

7.    Health Technology Assessment. Screening Programs for asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms: review of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and evidence-based guidelines. Canadian Agency for drugs and technologies in Health, May 2010

8.    International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms – Risk of Rupture and Risks of Surgical Intervention. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:1725-1733

9.    BUPA Complete Health.

10.  Ottmar MD, Gonda RL Jr. Liver function tests in patients with computed tomography demonstrated hepatic metastases. Gastrointest Radiol 1989;14: 55-58

11.  Aragon G, Younossi ZM. When and how to evaluate mildly elevated liver enzymes in apparently healthy patients. Cleve Clin J Med 2010; 77:195-204.

12.  Sibille M, Deigat N. Laboratory data in healthy volunteers: reference values, reference changes, screening and laboratory adverse event limits in Phase I clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55:13-9.

13. Genetichealth ‘Personal Health Management’ website, accessed February 2011

14. Eeles RA, Stratton MR. The genetics of familial breast cancer and their practical implications. Eur J Cancer 1994; 30: 1383-90

15.  NICE. CG41: Familial breast cancer. London, 2006.

16.  Lord SJ, Lei W. A systematic review of the effectiveness of MRI as an addition to mammography and ultrasound in screening young women at high risk of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 2007; 43: 1905-1917

17.  Buys SS, Partridge E. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2011;305(22):2295-2303.

18.  UK Screening Portal, UK National Screening Committee, accessed February 2011

19.  Margolis J. The Interpretation of Genes. Financial Times, February 2009.

20. Clarke DM, Currie KC. Depression, anxiety and their relationship with chronic diseases: a review of the epidemiology, risk and treatment evidence. Med J Australia 2009; 190: S54–S60

21.  Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. SIGN 50: A guideline developer’s handbook. Annex B: key to evidence statements and grades of recommendations.

22.  More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette. 1949 Camel Cigarettes TV commercial.

23.  Gardner MN, Brandt AM. “The doctors’ choice is America’s choice” The physician in US cigarette advertisements, 1930-1953. Am J of Public Health 2006; 96(2):222-232

24. Dobson R, Elliott J. Dr Spock’s advice blamed for cot deaths. The Times, May 2005. (£)

25. Gilbert R, Salanti G, Harden M, See S. Infant sleeping position and the sudden infant death syndrome: systematic review of observational studies and historical review ofrecommendations from 1940 to 2002. Int J Epidemio 2005;34:874–887

26.  Hiley CM, Morley C. What do mothers remember about the ‘back to sleep’ campaign?  Arch Dis Child 1995; 73: 496–497

27.  Gilbert R, Salanti G. Infant sleeping position and the sudden infant death syndrome: systematic review of observational studies and historical review of recommendations from 1940 to 2002. Int. J. Epidemiol 2005 34: 874-887

28.  CRASH trial collaborators. Final results of MRC CRASH, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of intravenous corticosteroid in adults with head injury–outcomes at 6 months. Lancet 2005; 365: 1957-1959

29.  Sauerlanda S, Maegele M. A CRASH landing in severe head injury. Lancet 2004; 364: 1291-1292

30.  Sanossian N, Arbi G. Frequency and Determinants of Nonpublication of Research in the Stroke Literature. Stroke 2006; 37: 2588-2592

31.  GlaxoSmithKline. Public disclosure of clinical research. Corporate Responsibility Report, 2010.

32.  Krall R, Rockhold F. More on compulsory registration of clinical trials: GSK has created useful register, BMJ 2005;330:479.3, 24th Febuary 2005

33.  Curfman GD, Morrissey S. Expression of Concern: Bombardier et al., “Comparison of Upper Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Rofecoxib and Naproxen in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis,” N Engl J Med 2000; 343:1520-8. N Engl J Med, online editorial, December 2008.


Chapter 2  The business of cardiovascular risk

1.    UK election: the main parties’ health policies. Lancet, 375, 9725, 1511-1514, 1 May 2010

2.    The Scottish Government: Universal health checks planned. March 2010

3.    NHS Choices website, NHS Health Check, accessed February 2011

4.    NHS The Information Centre. Prescriptions Dispensed in the Community: England, Statistics for 1999 to 2009 Information Centre

5.    Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90 056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. The Lancet; 366: 1267-1278

6.    Thavendiranathan P, Bagai A. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases with Statin Therapy. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 2307-2313

7.    Graham DJ, Staffa JA. Incidence of hospitalized rhabdomyolysis in patients treated with lipid-lowering drugs. JAMA 2004 Dec 1;292(21):2585-90. Epub 2004 Nov 22.

8.    Sattar N, Preiss D. Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials. Lancet; 375: 735–742

9.    Wenger NK. Preventing cardiovascular disease in women: an update. Clin Cardiol 2008; 31:109-13.

10.  Abramson J, Wright JM. Are lipid-lowering guidelines evidence-based? Lancet; 369: 168 -169

11. Samia M, Glynn RJ. Trials. Statins for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Women With Elevated High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein or Dyslipidaemia: Results From the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) and Meta-Analysis of Women From Primary Prevention Trials. Circulation; 2010: 1069-1077)

12.  Ford I, Murray H. Long-Term Follow-up of the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1477-1486

13. Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group, Lancet, 378;9808:2013–2020

14.  British Hypertension Society working party. Treating mild hypertension. BMJ 1989; 298: 694-698

15.  Sever P, Beevers G. Management guidelines in essential hypertension: report of the second working party of the British Hypertension Society. BMJ 1993; 306: 983-987

16.  Ramsay LE, Williams B. British Hypertension Society guidelines for hypertension management 1999: summary. BMJ 1999; 319: 630

17.  Williams B, Poulter NR. British Hypertension Society guidelines for hypertension management 2004 (BHS-IV): summary. BMJ 2004; 328: 634

18.  NICE. CG127: Clinical management of primary hypertension in adults. London, 2011.

19.  Wright JM, Musini VM. First-line drugs for hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 3: CD001841

20.  Quan A, Kerlikowske K. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in women of different races. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000; 3: CD002146.

21.  Musini VM,Tejani AM. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 4: CD000028

22.  Cranney M, Warren E. Hypertension in the elderly: attitudes of British patients and general practitioners. J Hum Hypertens 1998; 12: 539–545

23.  General Medical Council. Good Medical Practice: Providing good clinical care.


Chapter 3  The nature of cancer: breast beating

1.    McFarlane MJ, Feinstein AR. The ‘Epidemiologic Necropsy’. Unexpected Detections, Demographic Selections, and Changing Rates of Lung Cancer. JAMA.1987; 258:331-338

2.    Sens MA, Zhou X. Unexpected neoplasia in autopsies: potential implications for tissue and organ safety.  Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133:1923-31.

3.    Veress B, Alafuzoff I. A retrospective analysis of clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings in 3,042 cases during two different time periods. Hum Pathol. 1994; 25:140-5.

4.    Ernster VL, Ballard-Barbash R. Detection of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ in Women Undergoing Screening Mammography. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 1546-1554.

5.    NHS Breast Screening Programme. Overcoming Barriers – Annual Review 2010.

6.    Sanders ME, Schuyler PA. The natural history of low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in women treated by biopsy only revealed over 30 years of long-term follow-up. Cancer 2005; 103: 2481-2484

7.    Virnig BA, Tuttle TM. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: A systematic review of incidence, treatment, and outcomes. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102(3):170-178

8.    Welch HG, Black WC. Using Autopsy Series To Estimate the Disease “Reservoir” for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast: How Much More Breast Cancer Can We Find?  Ann Intern Med 1997; 127: 1023-1028

9.    Dixon JM. Breast screening has increased the number of mastectomies. Breast Cancer Research 2009, 11(Suppl 3):S19

10.  Flanders J. Reality of ductal carcinoma in situ. BMJ 2009; 338:b958

11.  Conservative Party. The next moves forward. 1987

12.  Currie E. Life Lines. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1989

13.  NHS Breast Screening. Department of Health 2011.

14.  Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer Screening. Screening for breast cancer in England: past and future. J Med Screen 2006;13:59–61

15.  Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer Screening. Screening for breast cancer in England: past and future. NHSBSP Publication No 61, 2006

16.  International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 7: Breast Cancer Screening, Chapter 5: Effectiveness of screening. IARC Press, Lyon 2002.

17.  Gøtzsche PC, Nielsen M. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001877. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001877.pub4.

18.  Nordic Cochrane Centre, 2012 ‘What you always wanted to know about breast screening’ Accessed February 2012

19.  Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer Screening. Screening for Breast Cancer in England: Past and Future. NHSBSP Publication No 61, February 2006

20.  Yaffe MJ, Mainprize JG. Risk of Radiation-induced Breast Cancer from Mammographic Screening. Radiology 2011; 258: 98-105

21.  Loughran CF, Keeling C. Seeding of tumour cells following breast biopsy: a literature review. Breast Cancer Research 2010; 12(Suppl 3): 43


Chapter 4  Smears and fears: the Jade Goody effect

1.    Weaver M. Tributes pour in for Jade Goody after reality star dies from cancer, aged 27. Guardian, March 2009

2.    Cancer Research UK. Preventing cervical cancer. April 2004

3.    NHS Scotland. The Cervical Screening Test. Put it on Your List. 2010

4.    Raffle AE, Alden B. Outcomes of screening to prevent cancer: analysis of cumulative incidence of cervical abnormality and modelling of cases and deaths prevented. BMJ 2003; 326 : 901

5.    Crane JM. Pregnancy outcome after loop electrosurgical excision procedure: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102: 1058-62.

6.    Samson SL, Bentley JR. The effect of loop electrosurgical excision procedure on future pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105: 325-32.

7.    Cancer Research UK. Cervical cancer statistics-UK

8.    Office of National Statistics. Cancer Trends in England and Wales, 1950-1999, Chapter 6–66/index.html

9.    Papanicolaou GN, Traut HF. Diagnosis of uterine cancer by vaginal smear. Oxford: Commonwealth Fund, Oxford University, 1943.

10.  Lund, CJ. An Epitaph for Cervical Carcinoma. JAMA. 1961;175(2):98-99

11.  Debates about cervical screening: an historical overview. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008; 62:284-287

12. Clarke EA, Anderson TW. Does screening by ‘PAP’ smears help prevent cervical cancer? A Case-control Study. Lancet. 1979; 314: 8132.

13.  Apostolides A, Henderson M. Evaluation of Cancer Screening Programs. Parallels with Clinical Trials. Cancer 1977; 39:1779-1785.;2-9/pdf

14.  Peto J, Gilham C. The cervical cancer epidemic that screening has prevented in the UK. Lancet 2004; 364, 249 – 256

15.  NHS Cervical Screening Programme. Cervical screening saves thousands of lives. July 2004

16.  Modernising the NHSCSP: Introduction of LBC and change in national policy, NHS Cervical Screening Programme, 22/10/03

17.  Jacobs K. Why should we be refused a smear test? Guardian; March 2009

18.  Marie Stopes International. Marie Stopes International welcomes government review of the UK’s cervical screening policy. March 2009

19.  Advisory Committee on Cervical Screening. Extraordinary Meeting to re-examine current policy on cervical screening for women aged 20-24 years taking account of any new evidence and to make recommendations to the National Cancer Director and Ministers. May 2009

20.  Simsir A, Brooks S. Cervicovaginal smear abnormalities in sexually active adolescents. Implications for management. Acta Cytol. 2002; 46:271-6.

21.  Robertson JH, Woodend BE. Risk of cervical cancer associated with mild dyskaryosis BMJ 1988; 297: 18-21

22.  Sasieni P, Castanon A. Effectiveness of cervical screening with age: population based case-control study of prospectively recorded data. BMJ 2009; 339:b2968


Chapter 5  Screening for more: the prostate, bowel and aorta

1.    Abbasi K. To screen or not to screen? BMJ 1998; 316 : 484

2.    Thompson IM, Ankherst DP. Prostate-specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer. CMAJ 2007; 176: 1853-1858

3.    Albin RJ. The Great Prostate Mistake. New York Times, March 2010.

4.    Lefevre ML. Prostate Cancer Screening: More Harm Than Good? Am Fam Physician 1998 Aug 1;58(2):432-438

5.    Schröder FH, Hugosson J. Screening and Prostate-Cancer Mortality in a Randomized European Study. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:1320-1328

6.    Andriole GL, Crawford ED. Mortality Results from a Randomized Prostate-Cancer Screening Trial. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:1310-1319

7.    Lin K, Lipsitz R. Benefits and Harms of Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening for Prostate Cancer. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), August 2008.

8.    Barry MJ. Early Detection and Aggressive Treatment of Prostate Cancer. J Gen Intern Med 2000; 15: 749–751

9.    Barry MJ, Mulley Jr AJ. Why Are a High Overdiagnosis Probability and a Long Lead Time for Prostate Cancer Screening So Important? J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101: 374-383.

10.  Stamey TA, Yang N. Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Serum Marker for Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate. N Engl J Med 1987; 317:909-916

11.  Baker B. Medicare’s new PSA coverage, revised CPT lab panels. ACP–ASIM Observer, February 2000

12.  Melia J, Moss S. Survey of the rate of PSA testing in general practice. Brit J Cancer 2001; 85; 656–657

13.  Franks LM, Latent Carcinoma of the Prostate, J Pathol Bacteriol, 68,2,603-606.

14. Baker M, Standford Report, 22/9/04 Common test for prostate cancer comes under fire

15.  Stamey TA, Caldwell M. The Prostate Specific Antigen Era in the United States is over for Prostate Cancer: What Happened in the Last 20 Years? J Urol, 172: 1297-1301

16.  Rich AR, On the frequency of occurance of occult carcinoma of the prostate.  The Journal of Urology, 33:3 1935.

17. A Tale of Two Brothers. The Prostate Centre, London, 2011

18.  NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Pilot, 2007.

19.  NHS Cancer Screening Programmes Bowel Cancer Screening. The colonoscopy Investigation

20.  Hewitson P, Glasziou P. Screening for colorectal cancer using the faecal occult blood test, Hemoccult. 2008, John Wiley & Sons

21. The NHS Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening Programme. Information for Healthcare Professionals.

22.  Thompson SG, Ashton HA. Screening men for abdominal aortic aneurysm: 10 year mortality and cost effectiveness results from the randomised Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study. BMJ 2009; 338:b2307

23.  Schlösser FJ, Vaartjes I. Mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Ann Surg 2010;251:158-64.

24.  Irvine CD, Shaw E. A Comparison of the Mortality Rate After Elective Repair of Aortic Aneurysms Detected Either by Screening or Incidentally. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg; 20: 374-378

25.  Beck AW, Goodney PP. Predicting 1-year mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, J Vasc Surg 49;4:838-844, April 2009

26.  Khaira HS, Herbert LM. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms does not increase psychological morbidity. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1998; 80: 341–342

27.  Lifeline Screening. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm.


Chapter 6  Health for sale: everyone wants a slice of the healthy patient

1.    Hope J. Low-cholesterol spread ‘not certain to cut heart risks’, GPs told. Daily Mail, May 2008.

2. Frequently asked questions.

3.    Shepherd J, Cobbe SM. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. New Eng J Med 1995; 333: 1301-1307


5.    Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994; 344:1383-9.

6.    Flora pro-activ. Lowering your Cholesterol, September 2009.

7.    Flora pro-activ. Plant Sterols Scientific Review, June 2009.

8.    Danone. What is Activia?

9.    Probiotics in Practice.

10.  Danone Research. Clinical Studies.

11.  Guyonneta D,  Schlumberger A. Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improves gastrointestinal well-being and digestive symptoms in women reporting minor digestive symptoms: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled study. Br J Nutrition 2009; 102: 1654-1662

12.  Guyonnet D, Woodcock A. Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improved self-reported digestive comfort amongst a general population of adults. A randomized, open-label, controlled, pilot study. J Digestive Diseases 2009; 10: 61-70

13.  Agrawal A, Houghton LA. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 on abdominal distension and gastrointestinal transit in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2009; 29:104–114.

14.  Guyonnet D, Chassany O. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on the health-related quality of life and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2007; 26:475–486.

15.  Advertising Standards Authority. ASA Adjudication on Coca-Cola Great Britain, October 2009.

16.  De-Regil LM, Fernández-Gaxiola AC. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; 10: CD007950

17.  Irlam JH, Visser MME. Micronutrient supplementation in children and adults with HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; 12: CD003650

18.  Caraballoso M, Sacristan M. Drugs for preventing lung cancer in healthy people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; 2: CD002141

19.  Bjelakovic G, Nikolova N. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008; 2: CD007176

20.  Mishell DR. Goodwin TM, Brenner PF. Management of common problems in obstetrics and gynecology (fourth edition), Blackwell 2002

21.  Babystart Pre-conception fertility

22.  Aboulghar MA, Mansour RT. Diagnosis and management of unexplained infertility: an update. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2003; 267:177-188

23.  Guzick DS, Overstreet JW. Sperm morphology, motility and concentration in fertile and infertile men. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1388-1393

24.  Zita West

25.  The Zita West Fertility MOT

26.  Reproductive Ageing. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2010

27.  Nuffield Health, Fertility MOT, accessed Feburary 2012

28.  Ritchie G. Fertility MOT made wannabe mum realise she had to get a move on if she wanted to conceive. The Daily Record, Jun 2010.

29.  Boots. Cervical Cancer Vaccination.

30.  ASCCP. Practice Management. Natural History of HPV

31.  Paavonen J, Naud P. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet 2009; 374: 301–314

32.  FUTURE II Study Group. Quadrivalent Vaccine against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent High-Grade Cervical Lesions. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1915-1927

33.  Sigurdsson R, Briem H. The efficacy of HPV 16/18 vaccines on sexually active 18–23 year old women and the impact of HPV vaccination on organized cervical cancer screening. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavia, 2009, Vol 8, Pages 27-35


Chapter 7  George Clooney and the medical certainty illusion

1     Rorke B, Pathologic diagnosis as the gold standard. Cancer. 1997 Feb 15;79(4):665-7.

2.    Presant CA, Russell WO, Alexander RW, Fu YS. Soft-tissue and bone sarcoma histopathology peer review: the frequency of disagreement in diagnosis and the need for second pathology opinions. The Southeastern Cancer Study Group experience.  J Clin Oncol 1986; 4:1658 – 1661

3.    Baak JPA, Lindeman J, Overdiep SH, Langley FA. Disagreement of histopathological diagnoses of different pathologists in ovarian tumors – with some theoretical considerations. Eur J Obstet Gyn R B 1982; 13(1):51-55.

4.    Farmer ER, Gonin, R, Hanna MP. Discordance in the histopathologic diagnosis of melanoma and melanocytic nevi between expert pathologists. Hum Pathol. 1996; 27(6): 528-531

5.    Swerlick RA, Solomon ARR. Clinical diagnosis of moles vs Melanoma. JAMA 1998; 280(10):881-882

6.    Vishal, K. Frequency and clinical importance of pathological discordance in lymphoma. University of Toronto 2009; 151

7.    Gill C, Sabin L. Why clinicians are natural Bayesians. BMJ 2005; 330:1080

8.    Morris AH. Developing and implementing computerized protocols for standardization of clinical decisions. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132(5):373-383

9.   Garg AX, Adhikari NK. Effects of computerized clinical decision support systems on practitioner performance and patient outcomes. JAMA 2005; 293(10):1223-1238


Chapter 8  The snowballing of protocols

1.    Morrell CJ, Munro J.Impact of NHS Direct on other services: the characteristics and origins of its nurses. Emerg Med J 2002; 19:337-340

2.    Munro  J, Nicholl J. Evaluation of NHS Direct first wave sites. First interim report to the Department of Health, University of Sheffield 1998!/file/nhsd1.pdf

3.    Dealing with a patient who has a 10-year smear gap. Pulse Today. November 2011

4.    Uitti RJ, Calne DB, Dickson DW, Wszolek ZK. Is the neuropathological ‘gold-standard’ diagnosis dead? Implications of clinicopathological findings in an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 2004; 10(8):461-463

5.    Rivett G, How is General Practice funded?

6.    Parker G. Is depression overdiagnosed? Yes. BMJ, 2007;335:328 August 2007.

7.    Healy D. The anti-depressant era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,1997.

8.    The NHS Information Centre Prescribing Support Unit. Prescriptions dispensed in the community, statistics for 1999 to 2009: England. The Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2010.

9.    Coyne JC, Schwenk TL. The relationship of distress to mood disturbance in primary care and psychiatric populations. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997; 65(1):161-168

10. Kessler D, Bennewith O. Detection of depression and anxiety in primary care: follow up study. BMJ 2002; 325(7371):1016-1017

11.  Phelan E, Williams B. A study of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 in primary care elderly. BMC Fam Pract 2010; 11:63

12.  Kroenke K, Spitzer RL. The PHQ-9 Validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001; 16(9):606-613

13.  Cameron IM, Crawford JR. Psychometric comparison of PHQ-9 and HADS for measuring depression severity in primary care. Br Gen Pract. 2008; 58(546):32-36.

14.  Cameron IM, Lawton K. Appropriateness of antidepressant prescribing: an observational study in a Scottish primary-care setting. Br Gen Pract 2009; 59(566):644-649


Chapter 9  Who decides what doctors do: pharma, politicians of patients?

1.    Doll R, Hill AB. Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung. BMJ 1950; 2(4682):739-748

2.    Stead LF, Bergson G. Physician advice for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008; 16(2)

3.    Doll R, Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British Doctors. BMJ 2004; 328(7455)

4.    House of Commons Health Committee. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry. Fourth Report of Session 2004-2005

5.    Gagnon M-A, Lexchin J. The cost of pushing pills: a new estimate of pharmaceutical promotion expenditures in the United States. PLoS Medicine 2008; 5(1)

6.    IMS. New Models, New Metrics – website accessed February 2012

7.    Matyas V. Protecting the identity of doctors in drug prescription analysis. Health Informatics Journal 1998, 4(3):205-209

8.    Panush RS. Why I no longer accept pens (or other “gifts” from Industry (and why you shouldn’t either). J Rheumatol 2003;31:8

9.    Fischer MA, Keough ME. Prescribers and pharmaceutical representatives: why are we still meeting? J Gen Intern Med. 2009; 24(7):795-801

10. Spilker B. The benefits and risks of a pack of M&Ms, Health Affairs 2002

11. Caudill TS, Johnson MS. Physicians, pharmaceutical sales representatives, and the cost of prescribing.  Arch Fam Med. 1996; 5:201-206

12. Wazana A. Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: is a gift ever just a gift? JAMA 2000; 283(3):373-380

13. Irving R. GPs accused of ‘Luddism’ over drugs. The Sunday Times, June 06 2005

14. LaMattina JL. Drug Truths: Dispelling the Myths about Pharma R&D Wiley, 2009

15. Moreno C, Laje G. National trends in the outpatient diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64(9):1032-1039

16. Zimmerman M, Ruggero CJ. Is bipolar disorder overdiagnosed? J Clin Psychiatry. 2008; 69(6):935-940

17. Review of the week: when truth lies buried. BMJ 2010; 340

18. Pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca to pay $520 million for off-label drug marketing. The United States Department of Justice, April 2010

19. AstraZeneca in $198m claim payout. BBC News Business, August 2010

20. Spielmans CI, Parry PI. From evidence-based medicine to marketing-based medicine: evidence from internal industry documents. Bioethical Inquiry December 2009

21. Bombardier C, Laine L. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:1520-1528

22. Topol EJ. Failing the Public Health – Rofecoxib, Merck and the FDA. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:1707-1709.

23.  Curfman GD, Morrissey S. Expression of Concern: Bombardier et al., ‘Comparison of Upper Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Rofecoxib and Naproxen in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis”. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:1520-1528.

24.  Merck News Release, April 28th, 2000 ‘Merck Reconfirms Favourable Cardiovascular Safety of Vioxx’

25. Bresalier RS, Sandler RS. Cardiovascular events associated with Rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:1092-1102.

26. Merck Press Release. Merck announces voluntary worldwide withdrawal of                   VIOXX.

27. Jüni P, Nartey L. Risk of cardiovascular events and rofecoxib: cumulative meta-analysis. Lancet 2004; 364(9450):2021-2029

28. Vioxx, the implosion of Merck, and the aftershocks at the FDA. Lancet 2004 364;9450:1995-1996

29.  Newman M. The Rules of Retraction, BMJ 2010; 341: c6985

30. Aursnes I, Tvete IF. Suicide attempts in clinical trials with paroxetine randomised against placebo. BMC Med 2005; 3: 14. 2005

31. FDA proposes new warnings about suicidal thinking, behaviour in young adults who take antidepressant medications. US Food and Drug administration, May 2007

32. Major pharmaceutical firm concealed drug information: GlaxoSmithKline misled doctors about the safety of drug used to treat depression in children. Media Centre 2004.

33. Chalmers I. Government regulation is needed to prevent biased under-reporting of clinical trials. BMJ 2004; 329:462

34. Clark B, The Fight of my Life. Hodder, 2007

35. Instant cure-all: cancer drug must be fast-tracked. The Guardian May 2005

36. ABC News, The Top 10 Medical Advances of the Decade. 17/12/09

37. Tuma RS. Trastuzumab trials steal show at ASCO meeting. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97(12):870-871

38. ASCO. Advances in Monoclonal antibody therapy for breast cancer

39. Romond EH, Perez EA. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1673-1684

40. Hortobagyi GN. Trastuzumab in the treatment of Breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1734-1736

41. Herceptin trastuzumab. Adjuvant Breast cancer treatment clinical study results

42. Guarneri V, Lenihan DJ. Long-term cardiac tolerability of trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer: the MD Anderson Cancer Centre experience. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24(25):4107-4115

43. Riccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M. Trastuzumab after Adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;353:1659-1672

44. Corporate Partners

45. Romond EH, Edith MD. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for Operable HER2-Positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1673-1684

46. Dolan A. ‘My mum has breast cancer, please save her’. The Daily Mail, March 2006

47. McCartney M. Are we educating women to be afraid? Cancerworld


Chapter 10  Charities and favourite diseases

1.    New survey reveals severity of stroke still widely underestimated. The Stroke Association, October 2004

2.    Too many elderly ‘left in pain’. BBC News Online October 2006

3.    Equity and excellence: liberating the NHS. Terrence Higgins Trust October 2010

4.    Why awareness matters. Target Ovarian Cancer

5.    Written evidence from Arrhythmia Alliance (COM 114). http://www.parliament .uk October 2010

6.    Breast cancer campaigning lauded for Herceptin case. Brand Republic, March 2006

7.    Keiden J. Sucked into the Herceptin maelstrom. BMJ 2007; 334:18

8.    Breast Cancer Campaign, May 2006

9.    Breast Cancer Network Australia Campaigns

10. Herceptin and early breast cancer: a moment for caution. Lancet 2005; 366(9498):1673

11. Aukland Women’s Health Council, Herceptin

12. British Skin Foundation. About the BSF.

13. Dr. Nick Lowe Dermatologist. Skin Solutions.

14. Heart UK: The Cholesterol Charity

15. IBS Network. Our partners.

16. Breast Cancer Breakthrough. Partner your brand with us.

17. Breast Cancer Breakthrough. Financial Support 2008/09.

18. Trustee’s report and financial statements. Parkinson’s Disease Society of the United Kingdom (Parkinson’s UK), December 2009

19.  GlaxoSmithKline, Responsibility, Commitment to transparency. Patient group funding. Accessed February 2012

20. Asthma UK, Corporate Gold and Silver. Accessed February 2012


22.  GSK. Patient group funding

23. Letter to The Times, 24/2/10 Patient wellbeing at risk from substituted generic medicines.

24.  McCartney M. Generic drugs: protest group was not quite what it seemed. BMJ 2010; 340:c1514

25.  Ball DE, Tisocki K. Advertising and disclosure of funding on patient organisation websites: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health 2006; 6:201

26.  Vermeulen M, Bouma J. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry in patient organisations. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2007; 151(44):2432-2434

27.  Jones K. In whose interest? Relationships between health consumer groups and the pharmaceutical industry in the UK. Sociol Health Illn 2008; 30(6):929-943

28.  CoppaFeel!

29.  Male Cancer Awareness Campaign

30.  Who’s in the House? Male Cancer Awareness Campaign, March 2010

31.  Information on Testicular Cancer, Orchid: Fighting Male Cancer Leaflets.

32.  Macmillan Cancer Information

33. McCartney, M. How useful are lifetime risks of disease? BMJ 2011; 342 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d1046

34.  Phillips KA, Glendon G. Putting the risk of breast cancer in perspective. N Engl J Med  1999; 340(2): 141-144

35.  Smith BL, Gadd MA. Perception of breast cancer risk among women in breast centre and primary care setting: correlation with age and family history of breast cancer. Surgery 1996; 120(2): 297-303

36.  Moser K, Patnick J, Beral V. Do women know that the risk of breast cancer increases with age? Brit J Gen Pract, 2007, 57(538) 404-406

37.  Cummings KM, Lampone D. What young men know about testicular cancer. Prev Med. 1983; 12(2):326-330

38.  Moore RA, Topping A. Young men’s knowledge of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination: a lost opportunity? Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 1999; 8(3): 137-142

39.  Cancer Research UK. Testicular Cancer statistics.

40.  Thomas DB, Gao DL. Randomized trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: Final results. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94(19):1445-1457

41.  Cancer Research UK cancer statistics

42.  Office for National Statistical Bulletin, Suicide Rates in the United Kingdom, 2000-2009 27/1/11

43.  World report chapter 1. Who Int.

44.  Rachel Stevens ‘gets fruity’ for Everyman. Everyman, June 2005

45.  Thornhill JA, Fennelly JJ. Patients’ delay in the presentation of testis cancer in Ireland. Br J Urol. 1987; 59(5):447-451

46.  Vasudev NS, Joffe JK. Delay in the diagnosis of testicular tumours – changes over the past 18 years. Br Gen Pract. 2004; 54(505):595-597

47.  Khadra A, Oakeshott P. Pilot study of testicular cancer awareness and testicular self-examination in men attending two South London general practices. Fam Pract. 202; 19(3): 294-296

48.  At-risk men ‘unaware’ of cancer threat. BBC News, June 1999

49.  Gascoigne P, Mason MD. Factors affecting presentation and delay in patients with testicular cancer: results of a qualitative study. Psychooncology 1999; 8(2):144-154;2-P/abstract

50.  Breakthrough breast cancer. Breast awareness.

51.  The Prostate Cancer Charity. Prostate and prostate cancer FAQs.

52.  Neate J. Let men make informed choices on prostate cancer screening. The Guardian, December 2010

53.  Prostate Screening Trust

54.  Kao T-C, Cruess DF. Multicentre patient self-reporting questionnaire on impotence, incontinence and stricture after radical prostatectomy. J Urolology 200; 163(3):858-864.

55.  Volk RJ, Hawley ST. Trials of decision aids for prostate cancer screening: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2007; 33(5):428-434

56.  Frosch DL, Kaplan RM. The evaluation of two methods to facilitate shared decision making for men considering the prostate-specific antigen test. J Gen Intern Med 2001; 16(6):391-398

57.  For the man in your life . . . ignorance isn’t bliss: a woman’s guide to the prostate. Prostate UK 2004


Chapter 11  The problem with PR

1.    Advert in the Guardian newspaper, 2006

2.    British Heart Foundation. Job vacancy

3.    Hope hits the headlines. British Heart Foundation, February 2011

4.    Macrae F. Pill that can trick your heart into fixing itself. The Mail Online. February 2011

5.    D’Souza R. British Scientists create miracle pill to mend broken hearts. Manufacturing Digital, 2011.

6.    Alleyne R. Recovering from a heart attack could soon be as simple as recovering from a broken leg. The Telegraph February 2011

7.    British Heart Foundation. The Science.

8.    Whitcroft I. How a prostate test taught Darth Vader he’s not so invincible after all. Mail Online, December 2009

9.    Estee Lauder. Pink Ribbon Collection.

10. McCartney M. One in four women? FT Health and Science blog, October 2009

11. Annual report and audited financial statements. Hyperlipidaemia education & atherosclerosis research trust UK (Heart UK), February 2010

12. Heart UK. Product Approval

13. Landmark Study: Pravastatin rapidly reduces risk of heart attacks and saves lives of people with high cholesterol and no previous heart attack. Press Release 15th November 1995

14. Shepherd J, Cobbe SM. Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease with Pravastatin in Men with Hypercholesterolemia N Eng J Med 1995; 333:1301-1308

15. Skolbekken J-A. Communicating the risk reduction achieved by cholesterol reducing drugs. BMJ 1998; 316:1956

16.  Wald N, Law MR. A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80%. BMJ 2003; 326:1419

17.  Smith R. The most important BMJ for 50 years? BMJ 2003: 326

18.  Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Unintended effects of statins in men and women in England and Wales: population based cohort study using the QResearch database. BMJ 2010; 340:c2197

19.  Mayer B, Baggio C. Gastroprotective constituents of Salvua officinalis L. Fitoterapia 2009; 80(7): 421-426

20.  Is sage the new superfood? Elsevier ‘Flash’ press release, 6/10/09

21.  Boutron I, Dutton S. Reporting and interpretation of randomized controlled trials with statistically nonsignificant results for primary outcomes. JAMA 2010; 303(2):2058-2064

22.  Berwanger O, Ribeiro RA. The quality of reporting of trial abstracts is suboptimal: survey of major general medical journals. J Clin Epidemiol 2009; 62(4):387-392

23.  Select Committee on science and technology (third report). Chapter 7: Science and the media.

24.  Woloshin S. Schwartz LM. Press releases by academic medical centres: Not so academic?

25.  Moynihan R, Bero L. Coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1645-1650

26.  Find your me spot

27.  Incredibull: Find your me spot campaign

28.  Sleep Well, Live Well


30.  Incredibull: Live Well, Sleep well

31.  Buscemi N, Vandermeer B. The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for primary sleep disorders. J Gen Intern Med 2005; 20(12):1151-1158

32.  Buscemi N, Vandermeer B. Efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction: meta-analysis. BMJ 2006; 332:385

33. Press Release. MMYM Launches New Chlamydia Screening Programme in Shropshire. 21/10/10

34. The Comptroller and Auditor General. Young people’s sexual health: the National chlamydia screening programme. National Audit Office, November 2009

35. Low N, Bender N. Effectiveness of chlamydia screening: systematic review. Int J Epidemiol 2009; 38(2):435-448

36. O’Reilly E. Mpad wins Chlamydia testing brief. PR Week, 20 October 2008


38.  Akande V, Turner C. Impact of Chlamydia Trachomatis in the reproductive setting: British Fertility Society guideline for practice. Hum Fertil (CamB). 2010; 13(3):115-125

30. Frisky not risky chlamydia screening (case study). PMLive Intelligence online, October 2010


Chapter 12 Professionals in pay

1.    Press release HARDSPR 2/8/10 stored at

2.    Markey CN, Markey PM. A correlational and experimental examination of reality television viewing and interest in cosmetic surgery. Body Image 2010; 7(2):165-171

3.    Haas CF, Champion A, Secor D. Motivating factors for seeking cosmetic surgery: a synthesis of the literature. Past Surg Nurs. 2008; 28(4):177-182

4.    Calogero RM, Park LE. Predicting excessive body image concerns among British university students: the unique role of appearance-based rejection sensitivity. Body Image 2010; 7(1): 78-81

5.    Veale D. Body dysmorphic disorder. Postgrad Med J 2004; 80:67-71

6.    Mya cosmetic vaginal surgery

7.    Castle DJ, Honigman RJ. Does cosmetic surgery improve psychosocial wellbeing? MJA 2002; 176(12): 601-604

8.    Bruck JC, Kleinschmidt A. Increased self-confidence and decreased sexual discomfort after subpectoral mammoplasty.  Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2001; 43(2):112-118

9.    More magazine Stored at

10. Hirsch L. Five secrets to leveraging maximum buying power with your media project. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America 2010; 18(4): 525-531

11. How is general practice funded? NHS History, October 2008

12. Quality and outcomes framework guidance for GMS contract 2011-12. BMA, April 2011

13. Quality and outcomes framework guidance for GMS contract 2009/2010: delivering investment in general practice. BMA & NHS Employers, March 2009

14. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Screeners. Screener Overview.

15. The PHQ-9 works well as a screening but not a diagnostic instrument for depressive disorder. Evidence Based Mental Health 2010; 13:96

16. Baker D, Middleton E. Cervical screening and health inequality in England in the 1990s. J Epidemiol Commun H 203; 57:419-423


Chapter 13  Political patients

1.    Hart JT. The inverse care law. Lancet. 1971 Feb 27; 1(7696):405-12.

2.    Accessing therapy. NHS choices.

3.    Physiotherapy – Accessing physiotherapy. NHS Choices.

4.    Brown JSL, Boardman J. Can a self-referral system help improve access to psychological treatments? Brit J Gen Pract 2010; 60(574):365-371

5.    Clark DM, Layard R. Improving access to psychological therapy: initial evaluation of two UK demonstration sites. Behav Res Ther 2009; 47(11): 910-920

6.    Bowers L. Community psychiatric nurse caseloads and the ‘worried well’: misspent time vital work? J Adv Nurs. 1997; 26(5):930-936

7.    St John-Smith P, McQueen D. The trouble with NHS psychiatry in England. Psychiatric Bulletin 2009; 33:219-225

8.    Green B. The decline of NHS inpatient psychiatry in England., March 2009

9.    The Royal College of Psychiatrists. In-patient services.

10. New Roles for psychiatrists. National Working Group on New Roles for Psychiatrists February 2004.

11. Pidd H. NHS Direct to be replaced by cut-price health advice service The Guardian, 27.08.2010

12.  Self Care Campaign. About us. Accessed February 2011.

13.  The Proprietary Association of Great Britain. Market figures

14.  Making the case for the self-care of minor elements. PAGB, August 2009

15.  Davies P. Darzi centres: an expensive luxury the UK can no longer afford? BMJ 2010; 341

16.  Lacobucci G. GP-led health centres ‘dominated by nurses and salaried doctors’. Pulse, Feb 2009

17.  Lord Darzi’s white elephant legacy. Pulse, 4th Nov 2009.

18.  Irvine M-L. Darzi centres are an expensive instant minor illness service BMJ, 2010

19.  Lacobucci G. Darzi centre dwarfs GMS cash. Pulse, July 2009

20.  NHS Choose and book. Clinical responsibilities when delegating actions in NHS choose and book.

21.  Quinn I. Radical new gateways reject one in eight GP referrals. Pulse, February 2011

22.  Gateways using nurses to screen GP referrals. Pulse, August 2011

23.  Davies M, Elwyn G. Referral management centres: promising innovations or Trojan Horses? BMJ, 2006; 332:844

24.  Referral management centres fail to deliver savings, according to new research from The King’s fund. The King’s Fund, August 2010

25.  Potter S, Govindarajulu S. Referral patterns, cancer diagnoses, and waiting times after introduction of two week wait rule for breast cancer: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2007; 335:288

26.  GPRD

27.  Jones R, Charlton J. Alarm Symptoms and identification of non-cancer diagnoses in primary care: cohort study. BMJ 2009; 339

28.  Rossing MA, Wicklund KG. Predictive value of symptoms for early detection of ovarian cancer. JNCI 2010; 102(4):222-229

29.  Bankhead CR, Collins C. Identifying symptoms of ovarian cancer: a qualitative and quantitative study. BJOG 2008; 115(8):1008-1014

30. Hamilton W, Lancashire R. The risk of colorectal cancer with symptoms at different ages and between the sexes: a case-control study. BMC Medicine 2009; 7:17

31.  Jones R. Is the two week rule for cancer referrals working? BMJ 2001; 322:1555

32.  Thorne K, Hutchings HA. The two-week rule for NHS Gastrointestinal Cancer referrals: A systematic review of diagnostic effectiveness. The Open Colorectal Cancer Journal 2009; 2:27-33

33.  Lewis NR. Jeune IL. Under utilisation of the 2-week wait initiative for lung cancer by primary care and its effect on the urgent referral pathway. British Journal of Cancer 2005; 93:905-908.

34.  Potter S, Govindarajulu S. Referral patterns, cancer diagnoses, and waiting times after introduction of two week wait rule for breast cancer: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2007; 335:288

35.  Hanna SJ, Muneer A.  The 2-week wait for suspected cancer: a time for rethink? International Journal of Clinical Practice 2005; 59(11):1334-1339


Chapter 14  What sort of patient?


2.    Mansell P. The patient paradox. Pharma Times Oct 2010

3.    Department of Health. Improving Chronic Disease Management.

4.    National Primary Care Research & Development Centre

5.    Kennedy A, Gately C. Assessing the Process of embedding EPP in the NHS preliminary survey of PCT Pilot sites. National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, January 2004.

6.    Richardson G, Kennedy A. Cost effectiveness of Expert Patients Programme (EPP) for patients with chronic conditions. J Epidemiol Commun H 2008; 62:361-367

7.    Phillips C. What is a QALY? What is…? Series, April 2009

8.    Foster G, Taylor SJC. Self-management education programmes by lay leaders for people with chronic conditions. The Cochrane Library, Jan 2009

9.    Rogers A, Gately C. Are some more equal than others? Social comparison in self-management skills training for long-term conditions. Chronic Illness 2009; 5(4):305-317

10.  National Primary Care Research and Development Centre. Expert Patients Programme (EPP): national evaluation. NRCRDC archive site, December 2010.

11.  Expert Patients Programme. About us

12.  General Medical Council. Duties of a doctor

13.  Lansley A. Equity and excellence: Liberating the NHS. Press release, July 2010.

14.  Office for National Statistics. News release: 9.2 million UK adults have never used the internet. August 2010—households-and-individuals/2010/index.html

15.  Hoffman, J. Awash with information, patients face a lonely, uncertain road. New York Times, August 2005

16.  General Medical Council. Good Medical Practice: Doctor patient partnership.

17.  Department of Health. Liberating the NHS: Greater choice and control. 18/10/10

18.  Parlimentary questions, Ben Bradshaw, 24/4/98

19.  Gould M. Claims that NHS choose and book system puts choice before quality. The Guardian, March 2010

20.  Nowottny S. Revealed: Choose and Book to cost taxpayers £210m. Pulse, October 2011.

21.  Carvel J. Patients to rate and review their GPs on NHS website. The Guardian 2008


Chapter 15  Not more information, better information

1.    NHS Evidence. UK DUETs: A resource to make uncertainties explicit and to help prioritise new research

2.    Johnson RT, Dickersin K. Publication bias against negative results from clinical trials. Nature Reviews Neurology 2007; 3:590-591

3.    Bandyopadhyay S, Bayer AJ. Age and gender bias in statin trials. QJM 2001; 94(3):127-132

4.    Murthy VK, Krumholz HM. Participation in cancer clinical trials. JAMA 2004; 291(22):2720-2726

5.    The NNT (The Number Needed to Treat). Glucocorticoids (steroids) for Croup

6.    McMenamin M, Barry H. A survey of breast cancer awareness and knowledge in a Western population: lots of light but little illumination. European Journal of Cancer 2005; 41(3):393-397

7.    Evans R, Edwards A. Reduction in uptake of PSA tests following decision aids: systematic review of current aids and their evaluations. Patient Education and Counselling 2005; 58(1):13-26

8.    Smith SK, Trevena L. A decision aid to support informed choices about bowel cancer screening among adults with low education: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2010; 341:c5370

9.    Randomised controlled trial: A decision aid to support informed choice about bowel cancer screening in people with low educational level improves knowledge but reduces screening uptake. Evid Based Nurs 2011; 13

10.  Bekker HL. Decision aids and uptake of screening. BMJ 2010; 341:c5407

11.  Arias E. United States life tables, 2006. National Vital Statistics Reports, June 2010. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 2010-1120

12.  Office of National Statistics. Life expectancies at birth and at age 65 in the United Kingdom. 2004-06 to 2008-10

13. McNaughton-Collins M, Fowler FJ. Psychological effects of a suspicious prostate cancer screening test followed by a benign biopsy result. Am J Med 2004; 117(10):719-725

14. NHS Scotland, Cervical screening put it on your list booklet, 2010

15. Boseley S. NICE to lose powers to decide on new drugs. The Guardian, October 2010

16. National Audit Office. The National programme for IT in the NHS: an update on the delivery of detailed care records systems. HC; 88:2010-2012

17. Pollock AM. Independent sectors treatment centres: evidence so far. BMJ 2008; 336:421

18. ISTC Performance Management Analysis. Report to the Department of Health. National centre for health outcomes development, 2004

19. Hall C. Foreign surgeons’ work attacked as inferior. The Telegraph, February 2005

20. Ferris JD. Independent sector treatment centres (ISTCS): early experience from an ophthalmology perspective. Eye 2005; 19:1090-1098

21. Mason A, Street A. Private sector treatment centres are treating less complex patients than the NHS. J R Soc Med 2010; 103(8):322-331

22. Clamp JA, Baiju DSR. Do independent sector treatment centres (ISTC) Impact on specialist registrar training in primary hip and knee arthroplasty? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2008; 90(6): 492-496

23. McGauran A. It’s time to rethink access to GPs within 48 hours, report says. BMJ 2004; 329:762

24. Committee of Public Accounts. Thirty-fifth report: the refinancing of the Norfolk and Norwich PFI hospital (HC 694). Press Notice 2006; 35: Session 2005-06

25. Limb M. PFI deals need more scrutiny after shareholders receive big windfalls. BMJ 2005; 330:1407

26. Private Finance Initiatives during NHS austerity, Pollock AM, Price D, BMJ 2011; 342:d324

27. Starr J. Hospital acquired infection. BMJ 2007; 334:708

28. NHS National Patient Safety Agency. Clean your hands

29. Dentith M, Shelmerdine T. Organising an awareness week to target hand hygiene practice. Nursing Times 2004; 100(17):36

30. Department of Health. Uniforms and workwear: an evidence base for developing local policy. September 2007

31. Sears N. Yo! Middle-aged nurses make cringeworthy Ali G-style rap video to encourage cleanliness. The Daily Mail, September 2010

32.  Davies S. Fragmented management, hospital contract cleaning and infection control. Policy & Politics 2010; 38(3):445-463

33.  Backman C, Zoutman DE. An integrative review of the current evidence on the relationship between hand hygiene interventions and the incidence of health care-associated infections. Am J Infection Control 2008; 36(5):333-348

34.  Trillis F, Eckstein EC. Contamination of hospital curtains with healthcare associated pathogens. Infect Cont Hosp Ep 2008; 29(11)

35.  Clements A, Halton K. Overcrowding and understaffing in modern health-care systems: key determinants in methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus transmission. Lancet Infect Dis 2008; 8(7):427-434

36.  Cunningham JB, Kernoham WG. Bed occupancy and turnover interval as determinant factors in MRSA infections in acute settings in Northern Ireland: 1 April 2001 to 31 March 2003. J Hosp Infect 2005; 61(3):189-193

37.  Dancer SJ, White LF. Measuring the effect of enhanced cleaning in a UK hospital: a prospective cross-over study. BMC Medicine 2009; 7:28

38.  Health Protection Agency, MRSA, Frequently Asked Questions

39.  Renal Patient View.


Chapter 16  The unseen benefits of professional healthcare

1.    De Craen AJM, Roos PJ. Effect of colour of drugs: systematic review of perceived effect of drugs and of their effectiveness. BMJ 1996; 313:1624

2.    Blackwell B, Bloomfield S. Demonstration to medical students of placebo responses and non-drug factors. Lancet 1972; 229(7763):1279-1282

3.    Moseley JB, O’Malley K. A controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:81-88

4.    Dimond EG, Kittle CF. Comparison of internal mammary artery ligation and sham operation for angina pectoris. Original Research Article Am J Cardiol 1960; 5(4):483-486

5.    Branthwaite A, Cooper P. Analgesic effects of branding in treatment of headaches. BMJ 1981; 282:1576-1578

6.    Desharnais R, Jobin J. Aerobic exercise and the placebo effect: a controlled study. Psychosomatic Medicine 1993; 55(2): 149-154

7.    Stovner LJ, Oftedal G. Nocebo as headache trigger: evidence from a sham-controlled provocation study with RF fields. Acta Neurologica 2008; 117(s118): 67-71

8.    Ivan Pavlov – Biography. 28 Oct 2011

9.    Phillips DP, Ruth TE. Psychology and survival. Lancet 1993; 342(8880): 1142-1145

10. Philips DP, Liu GC. The hound of the baskervilles effect: natural experiment on the influence of psychological stress on timing of death. BMJ 2001; 323(7327): 1443-1446

11. Ladwig KH, Roll G. Post-infarction depression and incomplete recovery 6 months after acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1994; 343(8888):20-23

12.  Blumenthal J, Lett HS. Depression as a risk factor for mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery. Lancet 2003; 362(9384): 604-609

13. Lindstone SC, Schulzer M. Effects of expectation on placebo-induced dopamine release in Parkinson Disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67(8):857-865

14. Pollo A, Amanzio M. Response expectancies in placebo analgesia and their clinical relevance. Pain 2001; 93(1):77-84

15. Grevert P, Albert LH. Partial antagonism of placebo analgesia by naloxone. Pain 1983; 16(2):129-143

16. Hróbjartsson A, Gøtzsche PC. Placebo interventions for all clinical conditions. Cochrane Db of Syst Rev 2010, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003974.

17. Finniss DG, Kaptchuk TJ. Placebo effects: biological, clinical and ethical advances. Lancet 2010; 375(9715): 686-695

18. Kaptchuk TJ. Powerful placebo: the dark side of the randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1998; 351: 1722-1725

19. The Humble Humbug. Lancet 1954; 264(6833):321

20. Kaptchuk T, Kelley JM. Components of placebo effect: randomised controlled trial in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. BMJ 2008; 336:999

21. Thomas KB. General practice consultations: is there any point in being positive? BMJ 1987; 294: 1200-1202

22. Little P, Everitt H. Observational study of effect of patient centeredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultations. BMJ 2001; 323:908

23. Hughes D. Consultation length and outcome in two group general practices. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1983 33(248): 143-144, 146-147

24. Campbell SM, Hann M. Identifying predictors of high quality care in English general practice: observational study. BMJ 2001 323:784

25. Wilson A, Childs S. The relationship between consultation length, process and outcomes in general practice: a systematic review Br Gen Pract. 2002; 52(485):1012-1020

26. Stirling AM, Wilson P. Deprivation, psychological distress, and consultation length in general practice. Br J Gen Pract. 2001; 51(467)456-460

27. Mercer SW, Fitzpatrick B. More time for complex consultations in a high-deprivation practice is associated with increased patient enablement. Br J Gen Pract. 2007; 57(545): 960-966

28. Linde K, Ramirex G. St John’s Wort for depression – an overview and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. BMJ 1996; 313:253

29. Gratus C, Damery S. The use of herbal medicines by people with cancer in the UK: a systematic review of the literature.  QJM. 2009; 102(12): 831-842

30. Astin JA. Why patients use alternative medicine. JAMA 1998; 279(19): 1548-1553

31. Turner D, Tarrant C. Do patients value continuity of care in general practice? An investigation using stated preference discrete choice experiments. J Health Serv Res Policy 2007; 12(3):132-137

32. Kearley KE, Freeman GK. An exploration of the value of the personal doctor-patient relationship in general practice. Br Gen Pract. 2001; 51(470): 712-718

33.  Gill JM, Mainous AG. The role of provider continuity in preventing hospitalizations. Arch Fam Med 1998; 7:352-357

34.  Cree M, Bell NR. Increased continuity of care associated with decreased hospital care and emergency department visits for patients with asthma. Dis Manag 2006; 9(1):63-71

35.  Knight JC, Dowden JJ. Does higher continuity of family physician care reduce hospitalizations in elderly people with diabetes. Popul Health Manag 2009; 12(2):81-6

36.  Burge F, Lawson B. Family physician continuity of care and emergency department use in end-of-life cancer care. Med Care 2003; 41(8):992-1001

37.  Raddish M, Horn SD. Continuity of care: is it cost effective? Am J Manag C 1995; 5(6):727-734

38.  Bamji AN. Southeast London – the unspoken problem. BMJ 2011; 342:d1765

39.  Mitchell AJ, Vaze A. Clinical diagnosis of depression in primary care: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2009; 374(9690):609-619

40.  Kai J, Crossland A. People with enduring mental health problems described the importance of communication, continuity of care, and stigma. Evid Based Nurs 2002; 5:93

41.  McQueen D, St John Smith P. Psychiatric professionalism, multidisciplinary teams and clinical practice. European Psychiatric Review, 2009;2(2):50-56

42.  Craddock N, Antebi D. Wake-up call for British psychiatry. Brit J Psychiat 2008; 193:6-9

43.  Simmons P, Hawley CJ. Service user, patient, client, user or survivor: describing recipients of mental health services. The Psychiatrist Online 2010; 34:20-23

44.  Propper C, Burgess S. Competition and quality: evidence from the NHS internal market.

45.  Samuel M. NHS Market reforms pose risk to service, warn professionals., 24th January 2011

46.  Health and social care bill 2011. Royal College of Psychiatrists, Second reading Briefing House of Commons.


Chapter 17  Getting back to the right kind of care

1.    Williams B, Poulter NR. British Hypertension Society guidelines. J Hum Hypertens 2004; 18:139-185

2.    McInnes GT. Drug treatment of prehypertension: Not now, not ever? Blood Pressure 2009; 18(6):304-307

3.    Pre-diabetes ‘timebomb’ warning. BBC News, October 2009

4.    The United States of Diabetes: New Report Shows Half the Country Could Have Diabetes or Prediabetes at a Cost of $3.35 Trillion by 2020. United Health Group Newsroom.

5.    Norris SL, Kansagara D. Screening adults for type 2 diabetes: a review of the evidence for the US preventive services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008; 148(11):855-68

6.    Lily M, Godwin M. Treating prediabetes with metformin. Can Fam Physician 2009; 55(4): 363-369

7.    Lowther M, Mordue A. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Scotland: we must go further. The Heart Health Network Executive group. January 2006

8.    Marmot M. Social determinants of health inequalities. Lancet 365; 9464:1099-1104, 2005.

9.    Fischer PM, Guinan KH. Impact of public cholesterol screening program. Arch Intern Med 1990; 150(12):2567-2572

10. Croyle RT, Loftus EF. How well do people recall risk factor test results? Accuracy and bias among cholesterol screening participants. Health Psychol 2006; 25(3):425-32

11.  NHS Health Scotland’s ‘Writing About Health Issues: Voices from Communities’ (2004)

12. Ovarian Cancer: the recognition and initial management of ovarian cancer. NICE, Full Guideline, April 2011.

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2 Responses to References

  1. V.Blease says:

    As a “patient” I looked forward to reading this book as I have followed your blog with interest, having heard a particularly perceptive interview you gave on the BBC about patients and their preference for continuity of treatment.
    I was not disappointed. It is a veritable fireworks display and I would love to be able to join the Skeptics Club in Glasgow next Monday when you will be talking about it.
    Perhaps in due course I will feel up to giving you some more specific feedback.. In the meantime
    I hope the book reaches a wide audience, and that even hard-pressed GPs will find time to read and discuss it..Sure isn’t healthy and hearty debate invigorating for all of us?
    Right now I just want to thank you for this list of references which I am sending to friends hoping that it will stimulate them to get copies of their own. It is better than a blurb for conveying the scope of the book.

  2. mgt mccartney says:

    many thanks, glad the references were helpful.

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